The jack pine (Pinus banksiana) is a coniferous evergreen tree native to Canada and the northern United States. It is a small to medium-sized tree, typically reaching heights of 30 to 70 feet (9 to 21 meters) with a narrow, conical crown.
The needles of the jack pine are short, stiff and about 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5 cm) long, arranged in pairs and are a bluish-green color. The cones of the jack pine are also distinctive, with a curved shape that is about 2 to 4 inches (5 to 10 cm) long. The cones are usually closed, but open when exposed to heat from a fire, releasing seeds that have been stored in the cones for many years.
The bark of the jack pine is thin, scaly, and grayish-brown in color. The wood is lightweight, soft and weak, and is not commonly used for lumber or other products.
The jack pine is an important tree in the ecology of northern forests, where it is one of the first species to colonize after a fire. It is also used in reforestation efforts, particularly in areas where fires have destroyed the previous forest cover. The tree is adaptable to a wide range of soils and climates, but prefers sandy or gravelly soils and full sun. The jack pine is generally considered to be a hardy and resilient tree, with good resistance to pests and diseases.