Black spruce (Picea mariana) is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree that is native to the boreal forests of northern North America. It is a slow-growing tree that can live for several hundred years.
The bark of black spruce is thin, scaly, and grayish-brown in color. It can sometimes be slightly reddish or purplish in younger trees. The needles of black spruce are short, stiff, and dark green in color, and are typically less than 1 cm (0.4 inches) in length. They are arranged spirally around the twig.
Black spruce cones are small, cylindrical, and usually hang downward from the branches. They are typically 2-4 cm (0.8-1.6 inches) long and are reddish-brown in color when mature.
Black spruce is well adapted to cold climates and can tolerate a wide range of soil types, including wetlands and poorly drained soils. It is an important species in the boreal forests of northern North America, where it is a keystone species that provides habitat and food for a variety of wildlife.
The tree’s dense, slow-growing wood is highly valued for its strength and durability, and is used in a variety of construction and woodworking applications. Black spruce is also used for timber and pulpwood. Sometimes, it is planted as an ornamental tree in gardens and landscapes.